Accelerated Rails Downloads with NGINX

Rails has an option to enable X-Accel-Redirect, but that is not the whole story. To get it working, NGINX has to be configured as well, and it is a bit tricky. Here is what I figured out.

The problem: sending large files efficiently

Scaling Rails is all about reducing the number of requests and making the rest as short as possible. Move long running requests to asynchronous background jobs. Offload asset requests to a CDN. Speed up requests with caches. And so it goes.

One type of request that is slow but doesn’t quite fit this pattern is sending large files through Rails. You might need to do this because the file needs to be secured (i.e. via the Rails session), or is generated on the fly. In these cases you can’t upload it to a CDN ahead of time, and making it asynchronous would not be a good user experience.

So how do you send a large file with Rails without bogging down the app for the duration of the download?

How send_file and NGINX work together

If you are using NGINX, the answer is the X-Accel-Redirect header. Here’s how it works:

  1. Your Rails controller calls the send_file method, which specifies a file to be downloaded. For a generated file, typically it will reside in the <rails root>/tmp directory.
  2. Rack checks if the X-Accel-Mapping header is present in the request. If so, it uses this mapping to transform the send_file path into a URI that NGINX understands.
  3. Rack sends a special empty response to NGINX containing an X-Accel-Redirect header. The header tells NGINX, “please load this URI and use it as the response”. From the perspective of the Rails app, at this point the response is now complete, and it can go on to service other requests.
  4. NGINX completes the current request and performs a second, internal redirect for the URI provided in the X-Accel-Redirect header.
  5. NGINX consults its configuration (i.e. a location directive) to find the file referenced by the URI. Assuming a file exists, it streams it efficiently back to the browser as the response to its original request.

As you can see, a simple send_file call kicks off a chain of events that will only succeed if things are properly set up. Here are the steps needed to get it working.

1. Configure Rails

First, Rails needs to be told to use the X-Accel-Redirect feature. Otherwise Rails will use a more basic (but slower) method of doing the streaming itself.

To enable NGINX acceleration, uncomment this line in config/environments/production.rb:

config.action_dispatch.x_sendfile_header = "X-Accel-Redirect" # for NGINX

2. Set up an NGINX location to serve the files

NGINX can’t just serve any file on the filesystem; we have to specify a “document root” and a URI to access the files we want to send. I chose __send_file_accel as the URI to avoid any conflicts with Rails routes.

The document root should be a well-known location that we can easily access within the Rails app. With Capistrano, my Rails app lives in /home/deployer/apps/my_app/releases, so that is the natural place for the root.

# Allow NGINX to serve any file in /home/deployer/apps/my_app/releases
# via a special internal-only location.
location /__send_file_accel {
  alias /home/deployer/apps/my_app/releases;

3. Send the X-Accel-Mapping header

Let’s say we want to send this file:


That means NGINX needs to receive this header:

X-Accel-Redirect: /__send_file_accel/20151003173639/tmp/

Rails (or more specifically, Rack) needs to know how to make this transformation. Here are the appropriate headers to send from NGINX to Rails (place these in the e.g. Unicorn reverse proxy configuration):

proxy_set_header X-Sendfile-Type X-Accel-Redirect;
proxy_set_header X-Accel-Mapping /home/deployer/apps/my_app/releases/=/__send_file_accel/;

4. Test it!

Here’s a trivial example for sending a file in a Rails controller:

send_file Rails.root.join("tmp", "")

During a download you should see something like this in the Rails production.log:

Sent file /home/deployer/apps/nginx-test/releases/20151011032644/tmp/ (0.2ms)
Completed 200 OK in 2ms (ActiveRecord: 0.0ms)

In the response headers, you can see evidence of whether it was Rails or NGINX that served the file. If the headers contain X-Request-Id, that means Rails served it.

X-Request-Id: a4d62cdb-569b-4120-b1ff-e2adbf77039a
X-Runtime: 0.005559

If everything is set up correctly, these headers should be absent, meaning NGINX was responsible for delivering the file, not Rails.

And that’s it! You’ve now offloaded sending large files from Rails onto NGINX.

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Hi! 👋 I’m Matt Brictson, a software engineer in San Francisco. This site is my excuse to practice UI design, fuss over CSS, and share my interest in open source. I blog about Rails, design patterns, and other development topics.

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